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Mammary Development
Lactation Biology


For more on the Mammary Development see:

General references on mammary growth and development:

Anderson, R.R., 1978, Embryonic and fetal development of the mammary apparatus. In: Lactation: A Comprehensive Treatise, Vol. IV, Ed. B.L. Larson, Academic Press, New York, pp. 3-40.

Cunha, G.R. and Y.K. Hom., 1996, Role of mesenchymal-epithelial interactions in mammary gland development. J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia 1:21-35.

Das, R. and B.K. Vonderhaar. 1997. Prolactin as a mitogen in mammary cells. J. Mam. Gland Biol. Neoplasia 2:29-40.

Fendrick, J.L., A. M. Raafat, and S. Z. Haslam. 1998. Mammary gland growth and development from the postnatal period to postmenopause: ovarian steroid receptor ontogeny and regulation in the mouse. J. Mam. Gland Biol. Neoplasia 3:7-22.

Forsyth, IA 1986 Variation among species in the endocrine control of mammary growth and function: the roles of prolactin, growth hormone, and placental lactogen. J. Dairy Sci. 69:886-903.

Hovey, RC, McFadden TB, Akers RM 1999 Regulation of mammary gland growth and morphogenesis by the mammary fat pad: a species comparison. J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia 4:53-68

Imagawa W, Yang J, Guzman R, Nandi S 1994 Control of mammary gland development. Ch. 56 in The Physiology of Lactation, 2nd edition, Eds. Knobil, K, Neill, J., et al., Raven Press, NY, p. 1033.

Kleinberg, D.L. 1997. Early mammary development: growth hormone and IGF-1. J. Mam. Gland Biol. Neoplasia 2:49-58.

Knight, CH, Peaker, M 1982 Development of the mammary gland. J. Reprod. Fert. 65:521-536.

Raynaud, A., 1961, Morphogenesis of the mammary gland. In: Milk: The Mammary Gland and Its Secretion, Vol. 1., Eds. S.K. Kon and A.T Cowie, Academic Press, New York, pp.3-46.

Raynaud, A. 1971, Foetal development of the mammary gland and hormonal effects on its morphogenesis. In: Lactation, Ed. I.R. Falconer, Penn. St. Univ. Press, University Park, pp. 3-29.

Sakakura, T., 1987, Mammary embryogenesis. In: The Mammary Gland: Development, Regulation, and Function, Eds. C.W. Neville and M.C. Daniel, Plenum Press, New York, pp. 37-66.

Sinha, Y.N. and H.A. Tucker. 1969. Mammary development and pituitary prolactin levels of heifers from birth through puberty and during the estrous cycle. J. Dairy Sci. 52:507-512.

Tucker, H.A., 1987, Quantitative estimates of mammary growth during various physiological states: a review. J. Dairy Sci. 70:1958-1966.

Turner, C.W., 1952, The Mammary Gland. Lucas Bros. Columbia, MO.

Turner, C.W., 1939, The Comparative Anatomy of the Mammary Glands. Univ. Coop. Store, Columbia, MO.

Woodward, T.L., J.W. Xie, and S.Z. Haslam. 1998. The role of mammary stroma in modulating the proliferative response to ovarian hormones in the normal mammary gland. J. Mam. Gland Biol. Neoplasia 3:117-132.

Influence of energy intake on mammary development:

Buskirk, D.D., D.B. Faulkner, W.L. Hurley, D.J. Kesler, F.A. Ireland, T.G. Nash, J.C. Castree,and J.L. Vicini. 1996. Growth, reproductive performance, mammary development, and milk production of beef heifers as influenced by prepubertal dietary energy and administration of bovine somatotropin. J. Anim. Sci. 74:2649-2662

Carstens, G.E., D.E. Glaser, F.M. Byers, L.W. Greene, and D.K. Lunt. 1997. Effects of bovine somatotropin treatment and intermittent growth pattern on mammary gland development in heifers. J. Anim. Sci. 75:2378-2388

Grings, E.E., D.M. deAvila, R.G. Eggert, and J.J. Reeves. 1990. Conception rate, growth, and lactation of dairy heifers treated with recombinant somatotropin. J. Dairy Sci. 73:73-77.

Harrison, R.D., I.P. Reynolds, and W. Little. 1983. A quantiative analysis of mammary glands of dairy heifers reared at different rates of live weight gain. J. Dairy Res. 50:405-412.

Lacasse, P., E. Block, and D. Petitclerc. 1994. Effect of plane of nutrition before and during gestation on the concentration of hormones in dairy heifers. J. Dairy Sci. 77:439-445.

McFadden, T.B., T.E. Daniel, and R.M. Akers. 1990. Effects f plane of nutrition, growth hormone and unsaturated fat on mammary growth in prepubertal lambs. J. Anim. Sci. 68:3171-3179.

Park, C.S., G.M. Erickson, Y.J. Choi, and G.D. Marx. 1987. Effect of compensatory grwoth on regulation of growth and lactation: Response of dairy heifers to a stair-step growth pattern. J. Anim. Sci. 64:1751-1758

Petitclerc, D. R.D. Kineman, S.A. Zinn, and H.A. Tucker. 1985. Mammary growth response of Holstein heifers to photoperiod. J. Dairy Sci. 68:86-90.

Ringuet, H. D. Petitclerc, M.T. Sorensen, P. Gaudreau, G. Pelletier, J. Morisset, Y. Couture,a nd P. Brazeau. 1989. Effect of human somatotropin-releasing factor and photoperiods on carcass parameters and mammary gland development of dairy heifers. J. Dairy Sci. 72:2928-2935.

Sejrsen, K. 1978. Mammary development and milk yield in relationto growth rate in dairy and dual-purpose heifers. Acta Agric. Scand. 28:41-46.

Sejrsen, K., J. Foldager, M.T. Sorenson, R.M. Akers, and D.E. Bauman. 1986. Effect of exogenous bovine somatotropin on pubertal mammary development in heifers. J. Dairy Sci. 69:1528

Sejrsen, K., J.T. Huber, H.A. Tucker, and R.M. Akers. 1982. Influence of nutrition on mammary development in pre- and postpubertal hiefers. J. Dairy Sci. 65:793

Sejrsen, K., J.T. Huber, and H.A. Tucker. 1983. Influence of amount fed on hormone concentrations and their relationship to mammary growth in heifers. J. Dairy Sci. 66:845.

Waldo, D.R., A.V. Capuco, and C.E. Rexroad, Jr. 1989. Replacement heifer growth rates affects milk producing ability. Feedstuffs, November 27, 1989, pp. 15-17.

Stelwagen, K. and D.G. Grieve. 1990. Effect of plane of nutrition on growth and mammary gland development in Holstein heifers. J. Dairy Sci. 73:2333-2341.

Growth facotrs and mammary development

Daniel, C.W., S. Robinson, and G.B. Silberstein, 1996, The role of TGF- in patterning and growth of the mammary ductal tree. J. Mam. Gland Biol. Neoplasia 1:331-342.

DiAugustine, R.P., R. G. Richards, adn J. Sebastian. 1997. EGF-Related peptides and their receptors in mammary gland development. J. Mam. Gland Biol. Neoplasia 2:109-118.

Plaut, K., 1993, Role of epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factors in mammary development and lactation. J. Dairy Sci. 76:1526.

Smith, G.H. 1996, TGF- and functional differentiation. J. Mam. Gland Biol. Neoplasia 1:343-352.

Hormonal control of mammary growth during pregnancy

Hayden, T. J., C. R. Thomas, S. V. Smith, and I. A. Forsyth. 1980. Placental lactogen in the goat in relation to stage of gestation, number of fetuses, metabolites, progesterone and time of day. J. Endocrinol. 86:279-290

Hurley, W.L.; Doane, R.M.; O’Day-Bowman, M.B.; Winn, R.J.; Mojonnier, L.E.; Sherwood, O.D. (1991) Effect of relaxin on mammary development in ovariectomized pregnant gilts. Endocrinology 128:1285-1290.

O’Day, M.B.; Winn, R.J.; Easter, R.A.; Dziuk, P.J.; Sherwood, O.D. (1989) Hormonal control of the cervix in pregnant gilts. II. Relaxin promotes changes in the physical properties of the cervix in ovariectomized hormone-treated pregnant gilts. Endocrinology 125:3004-3010.

Thomford, P. J. H. K. L. Sander, J. Z. Kendall, O. D. Sherwood, and P. J. Dziuk. 1984. Maintenance of pregnancy and levels of progesterone and relaxin in the serum of gilts following a stepwise reduction in the number of corpora lutea. Biol. Reprod. 31:494-498.

Winn, R.J.; Baker, M.D.; Merle, C.A.; Sherwood, O.D. (1994) Individual and combined effects of relaxin, estrogen, and progesterone in ovariectomized gilts. II. Effects on mammary development. Endocrinology 135, 1250-1255.

Mammary growth during lactation

Anderson, R. R., M. H. Lu, J. J. Trojanor, and J. L. Clark. 1974. Milk production, wet weight, dry weight, potassium, and nucleic acid measurements of cow udders. J. Dairy Sci. 57:1350.

Anderson, R. R., J. R. Harness, A. F. Snead, and M. F. Salah. 1981. Mammary growth patterns in goats during pregnancy and lactation. J. Dairy Sci. 64:427.

Anderson, R. R. M. S. Salah, J. R. Harness, and A. F. Snead. 1982. Mammary growth patterns in guinea pigs during puberty, pregnancy and lactation. Biol. Reprod. 26:620.

Anderson, R. R. and I. M. Wahab. 1990. Changes in parenchyma and stroma of goat udders during pregnancy, lactation, and involution. Small Ruminant Res. 3:605.

Kim, S. W., W. L. Hurley, I. K. Han, and R. A. Easter. 1999. Changes in tissue composition associated with mammary gland growth during lactation in sows. J. Anim. Sci. 77:2510-2516.

Munford, R. E. 1963. Changes in the mammary glands of rats and mice during pregnancy, lactation and involution. 2. Levels of deoxyribonucleic acid, and alkaline and acid phosphatases. J. Endocrinol. 28:17.

Swanson, E. W., and J. I. Poffenberger. 1979. Mammary gland development of dairy heifers during their first gestation. J. Dairy Sci. 62:702.

Tucker, H. A. 1966. Regulation of mammary nucleic acid content by various suckling intensities. Am. J. Physiol. 210:1209.

Tucker, H. A. 1969. Factors affecting mammary gland cell numbers. J. Dairy Sci. 52:720.

Zaleski, H.M.; Winn, R.J.; Jennings, R.L.; Sherwood, O.D. (1996) Effects of relaxin on lactational performance in ovariectomized gilts. Biology of Reproduction 55:671-675.


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