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Factors Affecting Lactation
Lactation Biology


For more on Factors Affecting Milk Yield and Composition see:

General reviews on Mammary Gland Involution

Capuco, A.V., and R. M. Akers. 1999. Mammary involution in dairy animals. J. Mamm. Gland Biol. Neoplasia 4:137-144.

Hurley, W.L. 1989. Mammary gland function during involution. J. Dairy Sci. 72:1637-1646.

Nickerson, S.C. 1989. Immunological aspects of mammary involution. J. Dairy Sci. 72:1665-1678.

Oliver, S.P. and L.M. Sordillo 1989. Approaches to the manipulation of mammary involution. J. Dairy Sci. 72:1647-1664.

References for mammary gland involution, apoptosis, and related topics:

Arends MJ, Morris RG, Wyllie AH 1990. Apoptosis. The role of the endonuclease. Amer. J. Pathol. 136:593-608.

Aslam M, Jimenez-Flores R, Kim HY, Hurley WL 1994. Two dimensional electrophoretic analysis of proteins of bovine mammary gland secretions collected during the dry period. J. Dairy Sci. 77:1529-1536.

Athie F, Bachman KC, Head HH, Hayen MJ, Wilcox CJ 1996 Estrogen administration at final milk removal accelerates involution of bovine mammary gland. J. Dairy Sci. 79:220-226.

Bachman KC 1982. Effect of exogenous estradiol and progesterone upon lipase activity and spontaneous lipolysis in bovine milk. J. Dairy Sci. 65:907-914.

Bachman KC, Hayen MJ, Morse D, Wilcox CJ 1988. Effect of pregnancy, milk yield, and somatic cell count on bovine milk fat hydrolysis. J. Dairy Sci. 71:925-931.

Bauman DE 1992. Bovine somatotropin: review of an emerging animal technology. J Dairy Sci 75:3432-3452.

Capuco AV, Akers RM, Smith JJ. 1997. Mammary growth in Holstein cows during the dry period: quantification of nucleic acids and histology. J Dairy Sci 80:477-487.

Coppock CE, Everett RW, Natzke RP, Ainsle HR. 1974. Effect of dry period length on Holstein milk production and selected disorders at parturition. J Dairy Sci 57:712.

Dias FM, Allaire FR. 1982. Dry period to maximize milk production over two consecutive lactations. J Dairy Sci 65:136.

Flint DJ, Tonner E, Beattie J, Panton D 1992. Investigation of the mechanism of action of growth hormone in stimulating lactation in the rat. J Endocr 134:377-383.

Flint DJ, Gardner M 1994. Evidence that growth hormone stimulates milk synthesis by direct action on the mammary gland and that prolactin exerts effects on milk secretion by maintenance of mammary deoxyribonucleic acid content and tight junction status. Endocrinology 135:1119-1124.

Fowler, PA, Knight CH, Foster MA 1991. Omitting the dry period between lactations does not reduce subsequent milk production in goats. J. Dairy Res. 58:13-19.

Helminen HJ, Ericsson JLE. 1968a. Studies on mammary gland involution. II. Ultrastructural evidence for auto- and heterophagocytosis. J. Ultrastruct. Res. 25:214.

Helminen HJ, Ericsson JLE. 1968b. Studies on mammary gland involution. II. Alterations outside auto- and heterophagocytic pathways for cytoplasmic degradation.. J. Ultrastruct. Res. 25:228.

Helminen HJ, Ericsson JLE. 1971. Effects of enforced milk stasis on mammary epithelium, with special reference to changes in lysosomes and lysosomal enzymes. Exp. Cell Res. 68:411.

Hooley RD, Campbell JJ, Findlay JK. 1978. The importance of prolactin for lactation in the ewe. J Endocr 79:301-310.

Holst BD, Hurley WL, Nelson DR. 1987. Involution of the bovine mammary gland: histological and ultrastructural changes. J Dairy Sci 70:935-944.

Hurley WL. 1987. Mammary function during the nonlactating period; enzyme, lactose. protein concentrations, and pH of mammary secretions. J Dairy Sci 70:20-28.

Hurley WL. 1989. Mammary gland function during involution. J Dairy Sci 72:1637-1646.

Hurley WL, Aslam M, Hegarty HM, Morkoš A. 1994a. Synthesis of lactoferrin and casein by explants of bovine mammary tissue. Cell Biol Int 18:629-637.

Hurley WL, Rejman JJ. 1986. ▀-Lactoglobulin and a-lactalbumin in mammary secretions during the dry period: parallelism of concentration changes. J Dairy Sci 69:1642-1647.

Hurley WL, Rejman JJ. 1993. Bovine lactoferrin in involuting mammary tissue. Cell Biol Int 17:283-289.

Hurley WL, Warner GJ, Grummer RR. 1987. Changes in triglyceride fatty acid composition of mammary secretions during involution. J Dairy Sci 70:2406-2410.

Karg H, Schams D. Prolactin release in cattle. J Reprod Fert 39:463-472, 1974.

Kerr JFR 1971. Shrinkage necrosis: a distinct mode of cellular death. J. Pathol. 105:13-20.

Kerr JFR, Wyllie AH, Currie AR. 1972. Apoptosis: A basic biological phenomenon with wide-ranging implications in tissue kinetics. Br. J. Cancer 26:239-257.

Knight CH, Peaker M. 1984. Mammary development and regression during lactation in goats in relation to milk secretion. Q. J. Exp. Physiol. 69:331-337.

Plaut K, Bauman DE, Agergaard N, Akers RM. 1987. Effect of exogenous prolactin administration on lactational performance of dairy cows. Dom Anim Endocrinol 4:279-290.

Quarrie LH, Addey CVP, Wilde CJ. 1994. Local regulation of mammary apoptosis in the lactating goat. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 22:178S.

Quarrie LH, Addey CVP, Wilde CJ. 1995. Apoptosis in lactating and involuting mouse mammary tissue demonstrated by nick-end DNA labelling. Cell Tissue Res. 281:413-419.

Quarrie LH, Addey CVP, Wilde CJ. 1996. Programmed cell death during mammary tissue involution induced by weaning, litter removal, and milk stasis. J. Cell. Physiol. 168:559-569.

Rejman JJ, Hurley WL, Bahr JM. 1989. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of bovine lactoferrin and a 39-kilodalton protein found in mammary secretions during involution. J Dairy Sci 72:555-560.

Richards RC, Benson GK. 1971. Ultrastructural changes accompanying involution of the mammary gland inthe albino rat. J. Endocrinol. 5:127.

Robertson HA, King GJ 1979. Conjugated and unconjugated oestrogens in fetal and maternal fluids of the cow throughout pregnancy. J. Reprod. Fert. 55:463-470.

Sanchez L, Calvo M, Brock JH. 1992. Biological role of lactoferrin. Arch. Dis. Child. 67:657-661.

Schwartzman RA, Cidlowski JA. 1993. Apoptosis: The biochemistry and molecular biology of programmed cell death. Endocrine Reviews 14:133-151.

Strange R, Li F, Saurer S, Burkhardt A, Friis RR. 1992. Apoptotic cell death and tissue remodelling during mouse mammary gland involution. Development 115:49-58.

Swanson EW. 1965. Comparing continuous milking with sixty day dry periods in successive latations. J Dairy Sci 4:1205.

Tucker HA. 1994. Lactation and its hormonal control. In: The Physiology of Reproduction, Eds Knobil E, Neill JD, 2nd ed, Raven PRess, NY, pp 1065-1098.

Verley JJ, Hollman KH. 1967. La regression de la glande mammaire a l’arret de la lactation. I. Etude au microscope opique. Z. Zellforsch. 82:212.

Walker NI, Bennett RE, Kerr JFR. 1989. Cell death by apoptosis during involution of the lactating breast in mice and rats. Am. J. Anat. 185:19-32.

Wellings SR, DeOme KB. 1963. Electron microscopy of milk secretions in the mammary gland of the C3H/Crgl mouse. III. Cytomorphology of the involuting gland. J. Natl. Canc. Inst. 30:241.

Wilcox CJ, Pfau KO, Mather RE, Bartlett JW 1959. Genetic and environmental influences upon solids-not-fat content of cow’s milk. J. Dairy Sci. 42:1132-1146.

Wilde CJ, Addey CVP, Boddy LM, Peaker M. 1995. Autocrine regulation of milk secretion by a protein in milk. Biochem. J. 305:51-58.

Wilde CJ, Addey CVP, Li P, Fernig DG 1997. Programmed cell death in bovine mammary tissue during lactation and involution. Exper. Physiol., in press.

Wilde CJ, Hurley WL. 1996. Animal models for study of milk secretion. Topics Mam. Gland Biol. Neoplasia 1:123-134.

Wilde CJ, Henderson AJ, Knight CH, Blatchford DR, Faulkner A, Vernon RG. 1987. Effects of long-term thrice-daily milking on mammary enzyme activity, cell population and milk yield in the goat. J Anim Sci 64:533-539.

Wilde CJ, Knight CH. 1989. Metabolic adaptations in mammary gland during the declining phase of lactation. J Dairy Sci 72:1679-1692.

Wilde CJ, Peaker M. 1990. Autocrine control in milk secretion. J Agric Sci 114:235-238.

Wyllie AH, Kerr JFR, Currie AR. 1980. Cell death: the significance of apoptosis. Int. Rev. Cytol. 68:251-306.

Zou, S., W. L. Hurley, H. M. Hegarty, B. L. Larson, and D. R. Nelson. 1988. Immunoglobulin transport in the bovine mammary gland: immunohistological localization of IgG1, IgA and secretory component during mammary involution. Cell Tissue Res. 251:81-86.


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