Study Questions & References
1. The image below is a histological section of mamamry tissue from an ovariectomized gilt that had been treated with genistein (a phytoestrogen) for 10 days to induce estrogenic responses. What are the structures indicated by the 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 on the image, respectively?
2. If you were to inhibit relaxin secretion during late pregnancy in the gilt what effect would it have on mammary growth? If you then let those gilts suckle piglets after birth, how would postpartum mammary growth be affected? How would milk yield and piglet growth be affected?
3. The image below is a cross-section through the udder of a heifer at 2 months of gestation. If you were able to excise the areas of the udder circled in red at this point, what would happen to further mammary development? Why?
General references on mammary growth and develoment:
Anderson, R.R., 1978, Embryonic and fetal development of the mammary apparatus. In: Lactation: A Comprehensive Treatise, Vol. IV, Ed. B.L. Larson, Academic Press, New York, pp. 3-40.
Cunha, G.R. and Y.K. Hom., 1996, Role of mesenchymal-epithelial interactions in mammary gland development. J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia 1:21-35.
Das, R. and B.K. Vonderhaar. 1997. Prolactin as a mitogen in mammary cells. J. Mam. Gland Biol. Neoplasia 2:29-40.
Fendrick, J.L., A. M. Raafat, and S. Z. Haslam. 1998. Mammary gland growth and development from the postnatal period to postmenopause: ovarian steroid receptor ontogeny and regulation in the mouse. J. Mam. Gland Biol. Neoplasia 3:7-22.
Forsyth, IA 1986 Variation among species in the endocrine control of mammary growth and function: the roles of prolactin, growth hormone, and placental lactogen. J. Dairy Sci. 69:886-903.
Hovey, RC, McFadden TB, Akers RM 1999 Regulation of mammary gland growth and morphogenesis by the mammary fat pad: a species comparison. J. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia 4:53-68
Imagawa W, Yang J, Guzman R, Nandi S 1994 Control of mammary gland development. Ch. 56 in The Physiology of Lactation, 2nd edition, Eds. Knobil, K, Neill, J., et al., Raven Press, NY, p. 1033.
Kleinberg, D.L. 1997. Early mammary development: growth hormone and IGF-1. J. Mam. Gland Biol. Neoplasia 2:49-58.
Knight, CH, Peaker, M 1982 Development of the mammary gland. J. Reprod. Fert. 65:521-536.
Raynaud, A., 1961, Morphogenesis of the mammary gland. In: Milk: The Mammary Gland and Its Secretion, Vol. 1., Eds. S.K. Kon and A.T Cowie, Academic Press, New York, pp.3-46.
Raynaud, A. 1971, Foetal development of the mammary gland and hormonal effects on its morphogenesis. In: Lactation, Ed. I.R. Falconer, Penn. St. Univ. Press, University Park, pp. 3-29.
Sakakura, T., 1987, Mammary embryogenesis. In: The Mammary Gland: Development, Regulation, and Function, Eds. C.W. Neville and M.C. Daniel, Plenum Press, New York, pp. 37-66.
Sinha, Y.N. and H.A. Tucker. 1969. Mammary development and pituitary prolactin levels of heifers from birth through puberty and during the estrous cycle. J. Dairy Sci. 52:507-512.
Tucker, H.A., 1987, Quantitative estimates of mammary growth during various physiological states: a review. J. Dairy Sci. 70:1958-1966.
Turner, C.W., 1952, The Mammary Gland. Lucas Bros. Columbia, MO.
Turner, C.W., 1939, The Comparative Anatomy of the Mammary Glands. Univ. Coop. Store, Columbia, MO.
Woodward, T.L., J.W. Xie, and S.Z. Haslam. 1998. The role of mammary stroma in modulating the proliferative response to ovarian hormones in the normal mammary gland. J. Mam. Gland Biol. Neoplasia 3:117-132.
Influence of energy intake on mammary development:
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Harrison, R.D., I.P. Reynolds, and W. Little. 1983. A quantiative analysis of mammary glands of dairy heifers reared at different rates of live weight gain. J. Dairy Res. 50:405-412.
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McFadden, T.B., T.E. Daniel, and R.M. Akers. 1990. Effects f plane of nutrition, growth hormone and unsaturated fat on mammary growth in prepubertal lambs. J. Anim. Sci. 68:3171-3179.
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Ringuet, H. D. Petitclerc, M.T. Sorensen, P. Gaudreau, G. Pelletier, J. Morisset, Y. Couture,a nd P. Brazeau. 1989. Effect of human somatotropin-releasing factor and photoperiods on carcass parameters and mammary gland development of dairy heifers. J. Dairy Sci. 72:2928-2935.
Sejrsen, K. 1978. Mammary development and milk yield in relationto growth rate in dairy and dual-purpose heifers. Acta Agric. Scand. 28:41-46.
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Sejrsen, K., J.T. Huber, H.A. Tucker, and R.M. Akers. 1982. Influence of nutrition on mammary development in pre- and postpubertal hiefers. J. Dairy Sci. 65:793
Sejrsen, K., J.T. Huber, and H.A. Tucker. 1983. Influence of amount fed on hormone concentrations and their relationship to mammary growth in heifers. J. Dairy Sci. 66:845.
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Growth facotrs and mammary development
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Hormonal control of mammary growth during pregnancy
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Hurley, W.L.; Doane, R.M.; ODay-Bowman, M.B.; Winn, R.J.; Mojonnier, L.E.; Sherwood, O.D. (1991) Effect of relaxin on mammary development in ovariectomized pregnant gilts. Endocrinology 128:1285-1290.
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Mammary growth during lactation
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Tucker, H. A. 1969. Factors affecting mammary gland cell numbers. J. Dairy Sci. 52:720.
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Ovarian tumors in cattle
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Phytoestrogens and related topics
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Mammary Development Resources