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Comparative Lactation - Study Questions & References

Study Questions
& References

Cows walking to the barn.

Study Questions

1. The sow below is at about 21 days of lactation. The blue arrows indicate glands that have been suckled during lactation and the red arrwo indicates a gland that was not suckled. If all of her glands went through lactogenesis at parturition, then what happened to the gland marked by the red arrow compared with the other glands?

2. How does mammary growth in humans compare and contrast to that of swine or cattle?

3. How do the stages of lactation of the Tammar Wallaby compare with the physiological stages of mamamry development and lactation in swine or cattle?



Stonehouse and Gilmore, 1977, The Biology of Marsupials, University Park Press, Baltimore, MD
Hume, 1982, Digestive Physiology and Nutrition of Marsupials, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Peaker et al., 1984, Physiological Strategies in Lactation, Academic Press, London
Tyndale-Biscoe and Janssens, 1988, The Developing Marsupial. Models for Biomedical Research, Springer-Verlage, Berlin.


Allen AD, Lasley JF 1960 Milk production of sows. J Anim Sci 19:150-155

Anderson RR, Lu MH, Trojanor JJ, Clark JL 1974 Milk production, wet weight, dry weight, potassium, and nucleic acid measurements of cow udders. J Dairy Sci 57:1350-1354

Anderson RR, Harness JR, Snead AF, Salah MF 1981 Mammary growth patterns in goats during pregnancy and lactation. J. Dairy Sci. 64:427-432

Anderson RR, Salah MS, Harness JR, Snead AF 1982 Mammary growth patterns in guinea pigs during puberty, pregnancy and lactation. Biol Reprod 26:620-627

Anderson RR, Wahab IM 1990 Changes in parenchyma and stroma of goat udders during pregnancy, lactation, and involution. Small Ruminant Res 3:605-616

Auldist DE, Carlson D, Morrish L, Wakeford C, King RH 1995 Effects of increased suckling frequency on mammary development and milk yield of sows. In DH Hennessy and PD Cranwell (Eds.) Manipulating Pig Production V. p 137. Australian Pig Science Association, Werribee, Australia.

Boyd R.D, Kensinger, R.S 1998 Metabolic precursors for milk synthesis. The Lactating Sow (Eds. Verstegen MWA, Moughun PJ., Schrama JW) Wageningen Press, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 71-95

Dyck GW, Swierstra EE 1987 Causes of mortality in Yorkshire pigs from birth to 20 weeks of age. Can J Anim Sci 51:351-359

English PR, Smith WJ, MacLean A 1977 Management of the lactating sow and litter. In: The sow - improving her efficiency. p 311. Farming Press Ltd. Suffolk, UK

Harkins M, Boyd RD, Bauman DE 1989 Effect of recombinant porcine somatotropin on lactational performance and metabolic patterns in sows and growth of nursing pigs. J Anim Sci 67:1997-2008

Harrell RJ, Thomas MJ, Boyd BD 1993.mLimitations of sow milk yield on baby pig growth. Cornell Nutrition Conference, 156-164

Hartman DA, Pond WG 1960 Design and use of a milking machine for sows. J Anim Sci 19:780-785

Hartmann PE, McCauley I, Gooneratne AD, Whitely JL 1984 Inadequacies of sow lactation: survival of the fittest. In, Physiological Strategies in Lactation, Peaker M, Vernon RG, Knight CH Ed, pp 301-326, Academic Press, London

Hurley WL, Bryson JM 2000 Enhancing sow productivity through understanding mammary gland biology and lactation physiology. Pig News and Information, in press (March issue).

Kensinger RS, Collier RJ, Bazer FW, Ducsay CA, Becker HN 1982 Nucleic acid, metabolic and histological changes in gilt mammary tissue during pregnancy and lactogenesis. J Anim. Sci 54:1297-1308

Kim SW, Hurley WL, Han IK, Easter RA 1999a Changes in tissue composition associated with mammary gland growth during lactation in the sow. J Anim Sci 77:2510-2516

Kim SW, Hurley WL, Han IK, Stein HH, Easter RA 1999b Effect of nutrient intake on mammary gland growth in lactating sows. J Anim Sci 77:3304-3315

Kim SW, Osaka I, Hurley, WL Easter RA 1999c Mammary gland growth as influenced by litter size in lactating sows: Impact on lysine requirement. J Anim Sci 77:3316-3321

Kim SW, Hurley WL, Easter RA 2000 Growth of nursing pigs related to the characteristics of nursed mammary glands. J Anim Sci. 78:1313-1318.

King RH, Pettigrew JE, McNamara JP, McMurty JP, Henderson TL, Hathaway MR, Sower AF 1996 The effects fo exogenous prolactin on lactation performance of first-litter sows given protein-deficient diets during first pregnancy. Anim Reprod Sci 41:37-50

King RH 2000 Factors that influence milk production in well-fed sows. J Anim Sci 78(Suppl 3):19-25

King RH, Toner MS, Dove H, Atwood CS, Brown WG 1993 The response of first-litter sows to dietary protein level during lactation. J Anim. Sci 71:2457-2463

Meat and Livestock Commission 1994 Pig Yearbook 1994. Meat and Livestock Commission, London

Nara BS, Welk FA, Rutherford JE, Sherwood OD, First NL 1982 Effect of relaxin on parturition and frequency of live births in pigs. J Reprod Fertil 66:359-365

Nielsen OL, Sorensen MT 1998 The relationship between mammary gland size of sows and piglet growth rate. J Anim Sci 76 (Suppl):377 (Abstr)

Noblet J, Etienne M 1987 Metabolic utilization of energy and maintenance requirements in lactating sows. J Anim Sci 64:774-781

Pettigrew JE, Sower AF, Cornelius SG, Moser RL. 1985 A comparison of isotope dilution and weight-suckle-weigh methods for estimating milk intake by pigs. Can J Anim Sci 65:989-996

Prime RW, Fahy VA, Ray W, Cutler RS, Spicer EG 1987 On farm validation of research - Lowering preweaning mortality rates in pigs. Report to Pig Research Council. Department of Primary Industries and Energy. Canberra, Australia

Sauber TE, Stahly TS, Ewan RC, Williams NH 1994 Maximum lactational capacity of sows with a high and low genetic capacity for lean tissue growth. J Anim Sci 72(Suppl 1):364 (Abstr.)

Smith VG, Leman AD, Seaman WJ, Van Ravenswaay F 1991 Pig weaning weight and changes in haematology and blood chemistry of sows injected with recombinant porcine somatotropin during lactation. J Anim Sci 69:3501

Spinka M, Illmann G, Algers B, Stetkova Z 1997 The role of nursing frequency in milk production in domestic pigs. J Anim Sci 75:1223-1228

Tucker HA 1969 Factors affecting mammary gland cell numbers. J Dairy Sci 52:720-729

Tucker HA 1987 Quantitative estimates of mammary growth during various physiological states: A review. J Dairy Sci 70:1958-1966

Zijlstra RT, Whang KY, Easter RA, Odle J 1996 Effect of feeding a milk replacer to early-weaned pigs on growth, body composition, and small intestinal morphology, compared with suckled littermates. J Anim Sci 74:2948-2959

Dogs and Cats:

Barone, R. Anatomie Comparee des Mammiferes Domestiques III, Laboratoire d'Anatomie Ecole Nationale Veterinaire, Lyon, 1978.

Cohrs, P., Textbook of the Special Pathological Anatomy of Domestic Animals, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1967, p. 790-792.

Dellmann, H.-D., Veterinary Histology, Lea &;Febiger, Philadelphia, 1971, p. 257-259.

Fisher, G. L., "Effects of Disease on Serum Copper and Zinc Values in the Beagle, American Journal of Veterinary Research, Vol. 38, 0 935-940, 1977.

Gallo, P.V., J. Werboff, and K. Knox, "Protein Restriction during Gestation and Lactation: Development of Attachment Behavior in Cats," Behavioral and Neural Biology, Vol. 29, p. 216-223, 1980.

Jones, D.E., and Joshua, J.C., Reproductive Clinical Problems in the Dog, Wright PSG, Boston, 1982, p. 42-48.

Keen, C.L., B. Lonnerdal, M.S. Clegg, L.S. Hurley, J.G. Morris, Q.R. Rogers, and R.B. Rucker, "Developmental Changes in Composition of Cats' Milk: Trace Elements, Minerals, Protein, Carbohydrate and Fat," Journal of Nutrition, Vol 112, p. 1763-1769.

Larson, Bruce, Ed., Lactation, Iowa State University Press, Ames, 1985.

Larson, Bruce, and Smith, Lactation, A comprehensive Treatise, Vol. II, Biosynthesis and Secretion of Milk/Diseases, 1974.

Lewis, L. D. and Morris, M. L., Small Animal Clinical Nutrition. Mark Morris Associates, Topeka, Ks., 1983.

Lonnerdal, B., C.L. Keen, L.S. Hurley, and G.L. Fisher, "Developmental Changes in the Composition of Beagle Dog Milk," American Journal of Veterinary Research, Vol. 42, p. 662-666, 1981.

Miller, M. E., Christensen, G.C., and Evans, H.E., Anatomy of the Dog, W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia.

Mosier, J.E., "Nutritional Recommendations for Gestation and Lactation in the Dog", Veterinary Clinics of North America, Vol. 7, p. 683-692, 1977.

Nieberle and Cohrs, Textbook of the Special Pathological Anatomy of Domestic Animals, 1967, p. 790-792.

Peaker, M., Vernon, R.G. Knight, C.H., Physiological Strategies in Lactation, Academic Press, 1984.

Phillipson, A.T., Hall, L.W., and Pritchard, W.R., Scientific Foundations of Veterinary Medicine, William Heinemann Medical Books, Ltd., London, 1980.

Romsos, D.R., H.J. Palmer, K.L. Muiruri, and M.R. Bennink, "Influence of a Low Carbohydrate Diet on Performance of Pregnant and Lactating Dogs," Journal of Nutrition, Vol. III, p. 678-689, 1981.

Turner, C.W. and W.R. DeMoss, "I. The Male and Female domestic Cat," Research Bulletin #207, The Normal and Experimental Development of the Mammary Gland, University of Missouri, 1934.

Turner, C.W. and E. T. Gomez, "II. The male and Female Dog," Research Bulletin #207, The Normal and Experimental Development of the Mammary Gland, University of Missouri, 1934.


Neville and Daniel book at beginning of the class notes.

Neville and Neifert (1983) Lactation: Physiology Nutrition and Breast-feeding. Plenum Press N.Y.

Lactation Resources